Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Sunday, 12 / 16 / 2018

Articles

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Diagnosis, Treatment Algorithms, and Imaging Appearance after Transarterial Chemoembolization

REVIEW ARTICLE

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Diagnosis, Treatment Algorithms, and Imaging Appearance after Transarterial Chemoembolization

Patrick Vande Lune1, Ahmed K. Abdel Aal2, Sergio Klimkowski3, Jessica G. Zarzour4 and Andrew J. Gunn*,2

1University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA
2Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
4Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

*Correspondence to: Andrew J. Gunn, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th St S, NHB 623, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA. Tel: +1-205-975-4850, Fax: +1-205-975-5257, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2018;6(2):175-188 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00045
Received: July 3, 2017 Accepted: December 2, 2017 Published online: January 5, 2018

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, with incidence increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, the overall prognosis for patients with HCC is poor and many patients present with advanced stages of disease that preclude curative therapies. Diagnostic and interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of patients with HCC. Diagnostic radiologists can use contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound to diagnose and stage HCC, without the need for pathologic confirmation, by following established criteria. Once staged, the interventional radiologist can treat the appropriate patients with percutaneous ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, or radioembolization. Follow-up imaging after these liver-directed therapies for HCC can be characterized according to various radiologic response criteria; although, enhancement-based criteria, such as European Association for the Study of the Liver and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, are more reflective of treatment effect in HCC. Newer imaging technologies like volumetric analysis, dual-energy CT, cone beam CT and perfusion CT may provide additional benefits for patients with HCC.

Keywords

Interventional radiology, Interventional oncology, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Response criteria, Transarterial chemoembolization, Diagnostic radiology

 

 

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2018 vol. 6, 175-188  [ Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2018. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

 

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