Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Tuesday, 12 / 12 / 2017

Articles

Emerging Trends in Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

REVIEW ARTICLE

Emerging Trends in Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Cristina Stasi*1,2, Caterina Silvestri1 and Fabio Voller1

1Observatory of Epidemiology, Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, Florence, Italy
2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

*Correspondence to: Cristina Stasi, Observatory of Epidemiology, Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, 50141 Florence, Italy. Tel: +39-55-4624385, Fax: +39-55-4624330, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017;5(3):272-276 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00010
Received: February 14, 2017 Accepted: April 21, 2017 Published online: May 30, 2017

Abstract

Although a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, the prevalence of adults with chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia is still estimated at 5–10%. A high rate of chronic infections is also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the prevalence is 2–5%. Less than 1% of the population of Western Europe and North America is chronically infected. Given the high prevalence of infections (such as hepatitis) among inmates, prison is considered a reservoir for facilitating such infections. Based on these premises, this current review examines and discusses emerging trends in the epidemiology of HBV infection, with particular attention to HBV infection in prison. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence in prisoners in west and central Africa is very high (23.5%). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has highlighted the importance of HBV blood screening and subsequent anti-HBV vaccination in the prison population. The vaccination was recommended for all inmates, representing an opportunity to prevent HBV infection in a high-risk population. In these subjects, an accelerated hepatitis B immunisation schedule may result in rapid seroconversion for early short-term protection. Therefore, it is necessary to seek collaboration among public health officials, clinicians and correctional authorities to implement a vaccination programme.

Keywords

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection, Public health, Anti-HBV vaccine, Epidemiology, Prison

 

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017 vol. 5, 272-276  Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

 

© The Authors 2017. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

 

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