Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Monday, 06 / 25 / 2018

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Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Due to Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: A Review

REVIEW ARTICLE

Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Due to Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: A Review

Ahmed Babiker1, Jean Jeudy#,4, Seth Kligerman#,4, Miriam Khambaty2,3, Anoop Shah5 and Shashwatee Bagchi*2,3

1Providence Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
3Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
4Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
5Division of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh

*Correspondence to: Shashwatee Bagchi, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street, N359, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Tel: +1-410-706-4606, Fax: +1-410-706-3243, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017;5(4):343-362 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00021

Received: March 13, 2017 Accepted: July 27, 2017 Published online: August 31, 2017

Abstract

Hepatitis C (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2.5%, causing chronic liver disease in 170 million people worldwide. Recent data has identified HCV infection as a risk factor for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), but these data have been mixed and whether HCV is an independent risk factor for development of CVD remains controversial. In this review, we present the literature regarding the association of HCV with subclinical and clinical CVD and the possible underlying mechanisms leading to increased CVD among those infected with HCV. HCV infection leads to increased CVD via direct and indirect mechanisms with chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and direct invasion of the arterial wall cited as possible mechanisms. Our review showed that HCV infection, particularly chronic HCV infection, appears to lead to increased subclinical CVD most consistently and potentially also to increased clinical CVD outcomes, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the majority of studies evaluating the impact of HCV therapy on CVD morbidity and mortality showed an improvement in subclinical and clinical CVD endpoints in patients who were successfully treated and achieved sustained viral suppression. These results are of particular interest following the development of new direct antiviral agents which have made HCV eradication simple and feasible for many more patients globally, and in doing so may possibly reduce CVD morbidity and mortality in those with chronic HCV infection.

Keywords

Hepatitis C, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary heart disease, Atherosclerosis, Cerebrovascular disease

 

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017 vol. 5, 343-362 Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2017. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

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